In different periods of history, in the western world, there would be a dominant and, later on, stereotypical occupation for the Chinese ethnic group - at first the sailor, than the laundry-man, and from the 1950s to the present, the Chinese restaurant and takeaway worker.  However, today, it is hard to name one occupation that is the most popular occupation for the Chinese in the UK.  More and more Chinese students are coming over to study in the UK, and their choice of subjects is varied.  Many of them, who stayed, along with the second generation of British Chinese, work in all walks of life in Britain.

According to the British Museum, in 1985, 90% of the employed Chinese worked in the catering industry, but the situation has changed and keeps on changing.  Teaching Chinese to non-native speakers of Mandarin or Cantonese, and Traditional Chinese medicine have also become prominent occupations in mainstream society.

Since 1991, the British Government has started to pay attention to ethnic groups’ employment situation as well as to that of female workers.  Although being a cook is still the most popular occupation among Chinese men, the percentage has decreased.  In 1991, the top 5 most popular occupations among Chinese males are: cooks, restaurant managers, waiters, managerial professions and accountants.  Some 52.86% of the employed Chinese males were working in these five jobs.  In 2001, however, although cooks and restaurant managers were still the no. 1 and no. 2 most popular occupations for Chinese men, software professionals and sales assistants had started to catch up.  Also, only 41.61% of people were employed in those occupations, which meant the choices were wider for the British Chinese male workforce [1].  The 2004 Annual Population Survey (January 2004 to December 2004) showed that the Chinese were still concentrating on certain professions.  Somewhat less than half of the Chinese men in employment worked in the distribution, hotel and restaurant industry; whereas only 1/6 of the white British did the same [2].

For Chinese women being nurses, cooks, restaurant managers, sales assistants and waitresses were the most popular occupations in 1991.  Ten years later, among the top 5, no new occupation appears, but the order of popularity changed.  Sales assistants became the no. 1, followed by cooks, nurses, restaurant managers and waitresses.  Yet in 2001, these top five jobs only take up 32.12% of the total number of female workers, 8% less compare to 1991.  Those data show that although catering is still the “representative” occupation, other fields also have opened up to the British Chinese workforce.  (For details see Table one [3])  And in the 2004 Survey, 2/5 of Chinese women were employed in the distribution, hotel and restaurant industry.  The same survey also pointed out that 38% Chinese people were most likely to be employed in managerial or professional posts, and 16% of Chinese in employment were self-employed [4].

Table 1: Five most concentrated occupations for Chinese; England and Wales; 1991 and 2001

 

Gender

Year

Occupations ranked most common first percentage in each

Total in these 5 occupations percent

Total number of workers

Men

1991

Cooks

Restaurant managers

Waiters

Managers-services

Accountants

 

52.86

 

3,303

26.34

14.87

4.81

4.24

2.60

2001

Cooks

Restaurants managers

Software professionals

Sales assistants

Waiters

 

41.61

 

49,249

23.12

8.30

3.74

3.36

3.09

Women

1991

Nurses

Cooks

Restaurants managers

Sales assistants

Waitress

 

40.19

 

2,717

10.05

9.83

8.62

6.07

5.63

2001

Sales assistants

Cooks

Nurses

Restaurants managers

Waitress

 

32.12

 

46,760

9.17

7.43

5.97

5.11

4.45

 

(By Louisa Blackwell and Daniel Guinea-Martin, Health and Care Division, Office for National Statistics)


References:

[1] & [3] Louisa Blackwell and Daniel Guinea-Martin Occupational segregation by sex and ethnicity in England and Wales, 1991 to 2001, Health and Care Division, Office for National Statistics

[2] & [4] 2004 Annually Population Survey: “Ethnicity and Identity:  Employment Patterns”
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=463

在西方社會,華人在不同的歷史時期總有一項主導職業,而後該職業又成為大部分華人的就業選擇:一開始是海員,繼而是洗衣工人,從1950年代到現在則是中餐館和外賣店員工。然而,到了今天,很難說哪一種職業在英國華人中最為普遍。越來越多的華人學生來英國留學,他們學習的科目五花八門。與第二代英國華人一樣,許多畢業後留在英國的華人學生,已從事不同行業。

根據大英博物館的資料,1985年有90%的華人僱員從事餐飲業,不過這種情況現在已經改變,並且還在不斷的變化當中。對外漢語教學和中醫已經成為華人在主流社會中的重要職業。

從1991年起,英國政府開始關注少數族裔與女性的就業情況。儘管廚師仍然是華人最普遍從事的職業,其百分比已有所下降。1991年,華人男性最普遍的五種職業分別是:廚師、餐館經理、服務生、管理階層和會計。受僱華人男性有52.86%從事這五種職業。然而,到了2001年,雖然廚師與餐館經理仍然是華人男性的首要兩種職業,軟件專業人士與銷售助理的數量開始攀升。而且,只有41.61%的華人男性從事上述幾種職業,這說明英國華人男性勞動力的就業選擇已然拓寬 [1]。2004年的年度人口調查(2004年1月-2004年12月)表明,華人依然集中在某幾種職業。少於半數的受僱華人男性從事分發、旅店和餐飲業;而僅有1/6的英國白人活躍于相同行業 [2]

華人女性在1991年最普遍從事的職業則是護士、廚師、餐館經理、銷售助理和服務生。十年後,這些職業仍居前五位,但排序有所變化。銷售助理成為最多華人女性從事的職業,其後是廚師、護士、餐館經理和服務生。不過,在2001年,華人女性勞工只有32.12%從事這五種職業,比1991年下降了8%。這些數據顯示出,儘管餐飲業仍是英國華人勞動力的 “代表性” 行業,其他行業已向他們打開了大門。(詳見表格一 [3])而在2004年的調查中,2/5的華人女性受僱於分發、旅店和餐飲業。該調查還指出,38%的華人極有可能躋身於管理階層或得到專業水平的職位,16%的華人則屬自僱人士 [4]

表格一:華人最普遍從事的五種職業;英格蘭與威爾士;1991年與2001

性別

年份

職業及就業人數百分比(從高到低排列)

這五種職業的就業總人數百分比

勞工總數

男性

1991

廚師

餐館經理

服務生

管理階層

會計

 

52.86

 

3,303

26.34

14.87

4.81

4.24

2.60

2001

廚師

餐館經理

軟件專業人士

銷售助理

 

服務生

 

41.61

 

49,249

23.12

8.30

3.74

3.36

3.09

女性

1991

護士

 

廚師

餐館經理

銷售助理

 

服務生

 

40.19

 

2,717

10.05

9.83

8.62

6.07

5.63

2001

銷售助理

廚師

護士

 

餐館經理

服務生

 

32.12

 

46,760

9.17

7.43

5.97

5.11

4.45

 

(國家統計局健康與護理部 Louisa BlackwellDaniel Guinea-Martin 製表)


註釋:

[1] & [3] Louisa Blackwell and Daniel Guinea-Martin Occupational segregation by sex and ethnicity in England and Wales, 1991 to 2001, Health and Care Division, Office for National Statistics

[2] & [4] 2004 Annually Population Survey: “Ethnicity and Identity:  Employment Patterns”
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=46

在西方社会,华人在不同的历史时期总有一项主导职业,而后该职业又成为大部分华人的就业选择:一开始是海员,继而是洗衣工人,从1950年代到现在则是中餐馆和外卖店员工。然而,到了今天,很难说哪一种职业在英国华人中最为普遍。越来越多的华人学生来英国留学,他们学习的科目五花八门。与第二代英国华人一样,许多毕业后留在英国的华人学生,已从事不同行业。

根据大英博物馆的资料,1985年有90%的华人雇员从事餐饮业,不过这种情况现在已经改变,并且还在不断的变化当中。对外汉语教学和中医已经成为华人在主流社会中的重要职业。

从1991年起,英国政府开始关注少数族裔与女性的就业情况。尽管厨师仍然是华人最普遍从事的职业,其百分比已有所下降。1991年,华人男性最普遍的五种职业分别是:厨师、餐馆经理、服务生、管理阶层和会计。受雇华人男性有52.86%从事这五种职业。然而,到了2001年,虽然厨师与餐馆经理仍然是华人男性的首要两种职业,软件专业人士与销售助理的数量开始攀升。而且,只有41.61%的华人男性从事上述几种职业,这说明英国华人男性劳动力的就业选择已然拓宽 [1]。2004年的年度人口调查(2004年1月-2004年12月)表明,华人依然集中在某几种职业。少于半数的受雇华人男性从事分发、旅店和餐饮业;而仅有1/6的英国白人活跃于相同行业 [2]

华人女性在1991年最普遍从事的职业则是护士、厨师、餐馆经理、销售助理和服务生。十年后,这些职业仍居前五位,但排序有所变化。销售助理成为最多华人女性从事的职业,其后是厨师、护士、餐馆经理和服务生。不过,在2001年,华人女性劳工只有32.12%从事这五种职业,比1991年下降了8%。这些数据显示出,尽管餐饮业仍是英国华人劳动力的 “代表性” 行业,其他行业已向他们打开了大门。(详见表格一 [3])而在2004年的调查中,2/5的华人女性受雇于分发、旅店和餐饮业。该调查还指出,38%的华人极有可能跻身于管理阶层或得到专业水平的职位,16%的华人则属自雇人士 [4]

表格一:华人最普遍从事的五种职业;英格兰与威尔士;1991年与2001

性别

年份

职业及就业人数百分比(从高到低排列)

这五种职业的就业总人数百分比

劳工总数

男性

1991

厨师

餐馆经理

服务生

管理阶层

会计

52.86

3,303

26.34

14.87

4.81

4.24

2.60

2001

厨师

餐馆经理

软件专业人士

销售助理

 

服务生

41.61

49,249

23.12

8.30

3.74

3.36

3.09

女性

1991

护士

 

厨师

餐馆经理

销售助理

 

服务生

40.19

2,717

10.05

9.83

8.62

6.07

5.63

2001

销售助理

厨师

护士

 

餐馆经理

服务生

32.12

46,760

9.17

7.43

5.97

5.11

4.45

(国家统计局健康与护理部 Louisa BlackwellDaniel Guinea-Martin 制表)


注释:

[1] & [3] Louisa Blackwell and Daniel Guinea-Martin Occupational segregation by sex and ethnicity in England and Wales, 1991 to 2001, Health and Care Division, Office for National Statistics

[2] & [4] 2004 Annually Population Survey: “Ethnicity and Identity:  Employment Patterns”
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=46